1. aperture- thin spots or holes in the exine that allows for germination of the pollen tube (laesurae (slit) in spores, colpi (slits) or pores in pollen)

2. baculate- long rods

3. bissacate- pair of air bladders

4. clavate- gradually tapering clubs

5. colpi- furrows/slits in pollen grains

6. columella- radially directed rods that support the tectum

7. echinate- sharp points/spikes

8. ektexine- the foot layer, columella and tectum, stains heavily pink with basic fucshin

9. endexine- the inner exine

10. exine (or spore wall)- outermost layer of sporopollenin, resists decomposition, survives acetolysis, often elaborately sculptured, essential for identification

11. inaperturate- no pores or colpi

12. fenestrate- tectum penetrated by a few large "windows"

13. foveolate- tectum with many small holes

14. gemmate- short, broad swollen projections (constricted at base)

15. granulate- tiny granules

16. intectate- without a roof

17. monolete- one slit or colpus per grain

18. monoporate- one pore per pollen grain

19. perforate- tectum with numerous tiny perforations

20. perine- loose outer layer of spores (usually of ferns)

21. periporate- many pores per pollen grain

22. pilate- clubs with swollen ends

23. pores- round holes

24. psilate- smooth

25. reticulate- raised sculpturing forming a net pattern

26. rugulate- raised, irregularly arranged, frequently branched sculpturing

27. scabrate- little flakes or lumps

28. semitectate- with a discontinous roof

29. sporopollenin [C90H142O36]- compound that composes the exine

30. stephanoporate- four or more equatorial pores/grain

31. striate- raised, infrequently branched, parallel linear sculpturing

32. tectate- with a more or less continuous roof (tectum)

33. tricolpate- three colpi per grain

34. tricolporate- three porate colpi per grain

35. trilete- with one "Y"-shaped slit per grain

36. triporate- three pores per grain

37. verrucate- covered by warts